No Safe Spaces-American Law Firms Report China Market Too Competitive: Exit with Whimper

An American law office with 650+ lawyers will be stealthy closing its three China offices at the end of May.

Surrendering ignominiously the China market, the world’s second largest economy, the place that has been transformative, the site of the greatest economic transformation in the history of the world as simply too competitive.

What I have found is bizarre is American law firms entered China and hired so-called China-hands whose only skill was promoting themselves as China hands-not finding, minding, and grinding things out on behalf of clients. Law firms are big business. One of my classmates in the MD of a firm that has $3B USD+ in revenues in the US. He confessed less that 0.1 percent of those revenues are derived from China-related work. The China office is a vanity project-hiring attractive but clueless China-born Ivy-league law graduates who “could not find a revenue stream if their lives depended upon it”.  And so it goes, American firms continue to shutter and give way in China even in light of the new Asian based Marshal Plan with Chinese characteristics the One Belt One Road (一带一路) the ambitious China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and the implementation of blockchain in China financial services which reported the Peoples Daily will save reportedly the China financial services industry some $20B  USD in costs each year.

So what is it? American lawyers and Big Law retreats-what does that mean-not much I guess as this is the way Big Law ends, not with a bang but a whimper- got it.

Published by Edward E. Lehman on May 24th, 2018 tagged China News | Comment now »

The Election of the Chairman of the Central Military Commission

The Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China is the highest military leadership under the leadership of the Communist Party of China. Its main function is to directly lead the national armed forces. Its members are determined by the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party.

The Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China is composed of Chairman, vice-Chairman and commission members, and it enforces the Chairman responsibility system. The party organization of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army works under the guidance of the Central Commission. The political work organ of the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China is the Political Work Department of the Central Military Commission of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army, and it takes in charge of the work of the Party and political works in the army. In the army, the Central Military Commission has the power to determine the organization structure and the organs of the Party.

Since January 1, 2018, according to the Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China regarding adjustment on the leadership and command system of the Chinese people’s Armed Police Force, the unified leadership of the People’s Armed Police should be the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the Central Military Commission, and the leadership and command system shall be armed force led by People’s Armed Police, and People’s Armed Police led by the Central Military Commission. Such Decision also specifies that the People’s Armed Police shall be governed and belong to the organizational system of the Central Military Commission, rather than the State Council. The development of the People’s Armed Police shall be organized and guided in accordance with the organization relationship provided by the Central Military Commission. The Central and National relevant departments, Party commission at local levels and government and armed police at different levels shall establish appropriate task requirements and work coordination mechanism. Such Decision further requires that different departments at local levels, the people’s liberation army and the armed police must resolutely implement the decision making arrangements of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, strengthen “four consciousness” which requires to view, analyse, and deal with problems politically; consciously look at the problem from the overall situation, put the work into the overall situation to think, position, manipulate, achieve a correct understanding of the overall situation, consciously obey the overall situation, resolutely safeguard the overall situation; identify with the core ideologically, revolve around the core politically, serve from the core in the organization, maintain the core in the action; and act in line with the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, in line with the Party’s theory, plan, principles and policies, and in line with the Central Committee’s decision-making arrangements, firmly response to the advocation of Central Committee, firmly implement Central Committee’s decision and firmly refuse to act in violation of Central Committee’s provisions.

Published by Edward E. Lehman on May 23rd, 2018 tagged China News | Comment now »

Policy Changes Create New Openings for Foreign Investment in China

One of the biggest things our China lawyers do for clients is setting up a China company.  When clients come to us seeking to set up a company in China, one of the first things our China lawyers look at is whether the client’s proposed business activity is allowed to be performed in China by a foreign company.

China has widespread restrictions on foreign participation in various industries. These restrictions and prohibitions are reflected in a “negative list” of industries restricted or outright prohibited to foreign investment.  The status of a client’s planned business activity in China on the negative list is one of the first things that must be considered before making plans for a China company. In addition, there are many special rules and separate regulations, as well as unwritten rules which impose additional restrictions on certain types of businesses such as restrictions on foreign exchange or cryptocurrency trading.

Beginning in 2018, our China lawyers have noticed implementation of new policies on opening up market access to foreign investment and promoting use of foreign capital in investment.  According to official statistics, over 14,000 foreign invested enterprise were established in China, in the first quarter, that’s a 124.7 % increase over the same period last year.

This trend is boosted by new policies to reduce some restrictions on foreign investment. For example, the People’s Bank of China recently announced a decision to reduce access restrictions on foreign invested payment institutions. This change will allow foreign payment processing providers to operate in China for the first time.

In a meantime, local governments at the provincial level are also taking action to further open the market for foreign investors. Beijing, being the capital of China, recently issued several new rules reducing the market access of foreign investment on several different business areas including science and technology services, internet and information service, culture and education services, financial services, commercial and tourism services and health and medical services. Beijing is open for business.

These changes in foreign market access are opening up new opportunities for foreign companies to get in to China. China is seeking ways to encourage foreign companies to do business in China both as a means to boost economic growth, as well as to move China up the manufacturing value chain, and increase quality of domestic offerings in service industries.

Published by Crys Zheng on May 22nd, 2018 tagged China News | Comment now »

Removal of Term Limits for the President

In the latest Amendment to the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, in the third paragraph of Article 79 of the Constitution, the sentence, reading “the terms of office for the President and Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China are the same as those of the deputies to the National People’s Congress; presidents and vice-presidents shall serve no more than two consecutive terms”, is revised to read “the terms of office for the President and Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China are the same as those of the deputies to the National People’s Congress”.

Thus, currently, there is no term limitation on the President of the People’s Republic of China. Some are saying that such amendment is aimed at keeping in line with the regulations and rules in the Party Charter as there is no term limit for both the leader of the Communist Party and Commander of the country’s armed forces. According to the Charter of the Communist Party of China adopted in 1982 and following amendments to the Charter, it only ruled that the term of office of each term of the Central Committee of the Party shall be five years, and there is no limitation on numbers of consecutive terms.

It is indeed one of the purpose of the amendment, but it is rather superficial. The original idea behind such amendment is to reflect and enforce the “three-in-one” leadership system in China by written form in Constitution.

The “three-in-one” leadership system means that one individual simultaneously takes the positions of the president of state, leader of the Communist Party and commander of the country’s armed forces. It is the successful experience that our Communist Party of China has gradually explored in the long-term ruling practice. After revising the provisions in the Constitution as to the consecutive term limits on President and make it in line with the provisions in the Party Charter, it will be propitious for keeping the uniformity of the leadership system in the Communist Party of China, the State and the Chinese People’s Liberation Army.

Jiang Zemin once said that “the three-in-one leadership system and form is not only a must but also the most appropriate method for our Party and such a big country”. The position of national President gives leaders the status of being the representative of the country and enables them to conduct state affairs such as promoting diplomacy, state visits, and attendance at international conferences and meetings at the international level.

This amendment does not mean to change the retirement system of leading cadres of the Communist Party of China and the State, nor does it mean the tenure system of leading cadres. As it is clearly stated in the Article 38 of the Party Charter that all the leading cadres at all levels of the Party, whether elected by democratic elections or appointed by the leading organs, may not take life-long position, and their position may be changed or terminated. Cadres whose age and health condition are not suitable for continuing to work shall retire in accordance with the provisions of the State.

By promoting the “three-in-one” leadership system in China, it would be of great significance for ensuring the leadership of the Communist Party of China in the field of systems on economy, politics, culture, society, ecological civilization and the long-term stability of the society. As far back as in 2013, the Central Committee of Communist Party of China has promulgated its Decision on Several Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Deepening Reforms and stated the requirement of perfecting the leadership system of the Communist Party of China and the country, sticking to the democratic centralism and giving full play to the core leadership of the Party. The latest Amendment to the Constitution as to the cancelation on the terms of the President is aimed at improving the leadership system of the Communist Party of China and State, and it is to make institutional arrangements in the Constitution.

Published by Edward E. Lehman on May 22nd, 2018 tagged China News | Comment now »

President Xi Jinping Holds Three Separate Leadership Positions

Like other Chinese Presidents before him. President Xi Jinping simultaneously serves as the Head of State in his role of President, the leader of the Communist Party in his role as Chairman, and the commander of the country’s armed forces, in his role as Chairman of the Central Military Commission.

The most important advantage of this system is to ensure the leadership of the Communist Party in China and to ensure the long-term stability of the country.

As all the peoples of China are under the leadership of the Communist Party, such three-in-one role will enhance the leadership and better the combination of the people and Communist Party of China.

The role of the Communist Party of China is clearly listed in the Preamble of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China.It was the Communist Party of China that led the various peoples of China to complete an arduous struggle and an endless series of twists and turns, including armed conflict as well as other forms and abolished the imperial, feudal, and bureaucratic-capitalist systems of governance, and finally establish the People’s Republic of China and won a great victory for the New Democratic Revolution. Since then, the Chinese people have had control of state power, becoming masters of their own country.

Besides, the victory of China’s New Democratic Revolution and the successes of the socialist cause are the achievements of all the peoples of China, as led by the Chinese Communist Party and guided by Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought, secured by upholding truth, correcting errors, and overcoming numerous hardships and obstacles. China will remain in the first phase of socialism for a significant length of time. The primary task of the nation is to concentrate efforts for socialist modernization along the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Under the leadership of the Communist Party of China and under the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important “Three Represents” thought, Scientific Outlook on Development, and Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, all the peoples of China will continue to sustain the people’s democratic dictatorship, the path of socialism, and the reform and opening up of China, improve steadily the various institutions of socialism, develop the socialist market economy, socialist democracy, and socialist law-based governance, and foster self-reliance and hard work to progressively modernize the country’s industry, agriculture, national defense, and the fields of science and technology, promoting the coordinated development of the material, political, spiritual, social and ecological facets of civilization, building China into a prosperous, powerful, democratic, culturally-advanced, harmonious and beautiful socialist modern power, and realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

Furthermore, during the long years of revolution, construction and reform, a united patriotic front has formed under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party, broadly composed of various democratic parties and people’s organizations, including all workers under socialism, those who advance the socialist cause, all patriots who uphold socialism, and all patriots who stand for reunification of the motherland and are committed to the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. This united front will continue to strengthen and develop.

The newly amended Constitution of the People’s Republic of China additionally added the sentence in paragraph 2 of Article 1 providing that “the leadership of the Communist Party of China is the most essential characteristic of Socialism with Chinese characteristics”

It can be seen from all the texts that by way of listing the roles and importance of the Communist Party of China in the Constitution which has the highest legal authority, the status of the Communist Party of China as the ruling party is extremely stable.  As the ruling party, the Communist Party of China must have its own armed forces and organs of violence, considering that the Chinese People’s Liberation Army is formed and developed by the Communist Party of China, and the highest military organ of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army  is the Central military Commission, thus, the principle of “The Party commands the gun” must be secured.

Besides, the leadership of the Communist Party of China in China shall not be limited to the field of military, it shall include all areas of national issues, especially administrative areas. Thus, if the national President, being as the supreme head of the sovereignty and the representative of a State managing the administrative issues of the nation, may also take the position of the leader of the Communist Party of China, it may be the optimal system design for consolidating the overall leadership position of the Communist Party of China.

Published by Edward E. Lehman on May 21st, 2018 tagged China News | Comment now »

Promotive Atmosphere of the Scene for Starting Business in Beijing

As part of the law firm’s corporate commercial legal service practices, we often assist clients with opening their business in China, particularly in Beijing.

Recently, relevant authorities in Beijing have jointly issued new policies and rules regarding optimizing the business environment in Beijing in order to facilitate establishment of new businesses in the city with less cost of both time and money. These new policies and rules are good news for our current clients who are in the process of getting their business registered and all future investors who are considering operations in Beijing.

Our China lawyers have summarized some of the most important updates here.

Published by Crys Zheng on May 19th, 2018 tagged China News | Comment now »

Appointment of the Chinese President

The Chinese President enters the position by way of consensus appointment performed by the National People’s Congress.

During the session of the National People’s Congress, a presidium shall be selected to chair the session. Candidates for deputies to the National People’s Congresses shall be nominated on the basis of electoral districts or electoral units. Each party or people’s organization may jointly or solely recommend deputy candidates. Ten or more voters or deputies may also jointly recommend deputy candidates. Deputies to the National People’s Congress shall be elected by the people’s congresses of the provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government and by the People’s Liberation Army. The number of deputies to the National People’s Congress shall not exceed 3,000.

The election of deputies to the NPC and the local people’s congresses shall be conducted by secret ballot with no exception. Facilities for confidential ballot writing shall be provided when election is under way. When balloting has been concluded, scrutineers and vote counters elected by the voters or deputies, and members of the presidium of the people’s congress shall check the number of people who voted against the number of votes cast and make a record of it; the record shall be signed by the scrutineers.

After deputies to the National People’s Congress have been elected, their credentials shall be examined by the Credentials Committee of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. Based on the reports submitted by the Credentials Committee, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress shall affirm the qualifications of deputies or invalidate the election of individual deputies, and shall publish the list of affirmed deputies prior to the first session of each National People’s Congress.

Candidates for the President of the People’s Republic of China shall be nominated by the Presidium which, after consultation among the various delegations, shall decide upon a formal list of candidates, based on the opinion of the majority of deputies. At sessions of the National People’s Congress, elections may be conducted and bills may be passed by secret ballot, by a show of hands or by any other form as decided by the Presidium.

The general process for appointing the President, the individual who is going to serve as the President must be a citizen of the people’s Republic of China and have the nationality of the people’s Republic of China; Must have the right to vote and the right to be elected; Must be over 45 years of age.

The President of the People’s Republic of China exercise their functions and powers until a new president elected by the subsequent National People’s Congress assume office. In the latest Amendment to the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, in the third paragraph of Article 79 of the Constitution, the sentence, reading “the terms of office for the President and Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China are the same as those of the deputies to the National People’s Congress; presidents and vice-presidents shall serve no more than two consecutive terms”, is revised to read “the terms of office for the President and Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China are the same as those of the deputies to the National People’s Congress”.

Thus, currently, there is no term limitation on the President of the People’s Republic of China.

In certain situations, the President may choose to delegate the Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China exercises relevant presidential functions and powers. In the event that the office of the President of the People’s Republic of China is left vacant, the vice-president succeeds to the office of the president.  In the event that the office of the Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China is left vacant, the National People’s Congress shall elect a new vice-president to fill the vacancy. In the event that the both the office of the President and the office of the Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China are left vacant, the National People’s Congress shall elect a new president and a new vice-president. Prior to the election, the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress shall provisionally assume the duties of president.

Published by Edward E. Lehman on May 18th, 2018 tagged China News | Comment now »

History of Chinese Presidency Explained

Chinese president is the national representative of People’s Republic of China and one of the national institutions. The Presidential system of the people’s Republic of China has undergone a tortuous process of development. After the first National People’s Congress was convened in 1954, the position of the President of People’s Republic of China was established. The position remained vacant after 1968. The Constitution adopted on 1975, removed the position of the “President of the people’s Republic of China”. In 1982’s Constitution the position of the President has been restored.

Since the beginning of the founding of People’s Republic of China through the year of 1954, there was no special position for the Presidents of the State established in the system of national institutions, the one that execute the power of the President was the Central People’s Government Commission. The president of such Commission led and presided the works of the Central People’s Government Commission and its sessions. However, the president of such Commission was not an independent state organ or the chief of the State. It only served partial works and performed partial duties and functions of the chief of the State.

The people’s Republic of China established the position of the President at the first session National people’s Congress, which was convened on September 1954, and the  first socialist constitution was enacted during such meeting. According to such 1954 Constitution, the standing Committee of the National people’s Congress and the President of the people’s Republic of China were established under the National people’s Congress, the Central People’s Government Commission was canceled. The National President became one independent state organ and the chief of the state, and it represents the country.

During the period of 1954 till 1965, China’s presidential system is basically functioning normally. In accordance with the decision of the National people’s Congress and its standing Committee, the President promulgated a large number of laws and decrees, a number of State meetings were held, foreign envoys received and many other related functions were carried out. However, during the year of 1966 till the year of 1975, due to the death Liu Shaoqi, who was the President of the People’s Republic of China at that time, the post of state president has been vacant for a long time.

In 1975, the second written Constitution of the People’s Republic of China was adopted and promulgated, and it formally cancelled the post of the State President.

When the fourth written Constitution was adopted in 1982, the position of the national President of the People’s Republic of China was restored. Besides, there were three amendments to 1982 Constitution, and each amendment insisted on holding the position of the national President, and the State presidency system of the People’s Republic of China is therefore radified.

The President of the People’s Republic of China are elected by the National People’s Congress. All citizens of the People’s Republic of China who have the right to vote, to stand for election, and who have reached the age of 45 are eligible to be chosen as the President of the People’s Republic of China. The terms of office for the President of the People’s Republic of China are the same as those of deputies to the National People’s Congress, which shall be five years.

The President of the People’s Republic of China promulgates laws; appoints or removes the premier, vice-premiers, state councilors, ministers in charge of ministries or commissions, the auditor general and the secretary general; confers state medals and honorary titles; issues special pardon orders; declares states of emergency and war; and issues mobilization orders. The President of the People’s Republic of China represents the People’s Republic of China when conducting national affairs and receiving foreign diplomatic representatives. Pursuant to the decisions of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, the president appoints or recalls plenipotentiary representatives stationed abroad, and ratifies or abrogates treaties or important agreements signed with foreign states.

Published by Edward E. Lehman on May 17th, 2018 tagged China News | Comment now »

Appointment and Responsibilities of Standing Committee Personnel

The chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, the deputy chairman, the secretary general, and the members of the Standing Committee come into positions by way of consensus appointment by the NPC.

During the session of the National People’s Congress, a presidium shall be selected to chair the session. Candidates for deputies to the National People’s Congresses shall be nominated on the basis of electoral districts. Each party or people’s organization may jointly or solely recommend deputy candidates. Ten or more voters or deputies may also jointly recommend deputy candidates. The deputy candidates who accept the recommendation shall provide the election committee or the presidium of the people’s congress with his or her true identification, resume and other basic information. If the information provided is not truthful, the election committee or the presidium of the people’s congress shall notify such circumstance to the voters or deputies. Deputies to the National People’s Congress shall be elected by the people’s congresses of the provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government and by the People’s Liberation Army. The number of deputies to the National People’s Congress shall not exceed 3,000.

The election of deputies to the NPC and the local people’s congresses shall be conducted by secret ballot with no exception. Facilities for confidential ballot writing shall be provided when election is under way. When balloting has been concluded, scrutineers and vote counters elected by the voters or deputies, and members of the presidium of the people’s congress shall check the number of people who voted against the number of votes cast and make a record of it; the record shall be signed by the scrutineers.

After deputies to the National People’s Congress have been elected, their credentials shall be examined by the Credentials Committee of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. Based on the reports submitted by the Credentials Committee, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress shall affirm the qualifications of deputies or invalidate the election of individual deputies, and shall publish the list of affirmed deputies prior to the first session of each National People’s Congress. Candidates for Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, Secretary-General and other members of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress shall be nominated by the Presidium which, after consultation among the various delegations, shall decide upon a formal list of candidates, based on the opinion of the majority of deputies At sessions of the National People’s Congress, elections may be conducted and bills may be passed by secret ballot, by a show of hands or by any other form as decided by the Presidium.

The Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress directs the work of the Standing Committee and convenes its meetings. The vice-chairmen and the secretary general assist the chairman in his work. When entrusted by the Chairman, a Vice-Chairman may exercise certain functions and powers of the Chairman. When the Chairman of the Standing Committee is incapacitated for work for reasons of health or when his office fall vacant, the Standing Committee shall choose one of the Vice-Chairmen to exercise the functions of the Chairman until the Chairman’s recovery or until a new Chairman is elected by the National People’s Congress.

The chairman, the vice-chairmen and the secretary general constitute the Council of Chairmen, handling the important daily work of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress which includes deciding on the time for each meeting of the Standing Committee and draft the agenda of the meeting. Deciding whether the bills, proposals and questions submitted to the Standing Committee should be referred to the relevant special committees or submitted to a general meeting of the Standing Committee for deliberation. Directing and coordinating the day-to-day work of the special committees.

In the event that the both the office of the President and the office of the Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China are left vacant, the National People’s Congress shall elect a new president and a new vice-president. Prior to the election, the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress shall provisionally assume the duties of president.

Published by Edward E. Lehman on May 16th, 2018 tagged China News | Comment now »

Function of the Standing Committee

Since the NPC convenes only once a year, during the non-session period of time, it is necessary to have a group of people in place which will continue to perform essential duties for the NPC. Thus, there is a Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress.

The main powers of the Standing Committee of the NPC are listed in the Constitution and include a variety of important tasks. The Standing Committee has responsibility for interpretation of the Constitution and supervision of its enforcement, formulation,  revision and interpretation of laws, and amendment or revision of certain laws when the larger NPC is not in session.

The Standing Committee also makes small revisions to plans for national economic and social development originally issued by the NPC, or to the state budget when it proves necessary during the course of implementation. It is responsible for supervision over the affairs of the State Council, the Central Military Commission, the Supreme People’s Court, and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, and is able to repeal laws, administrative regulations and any resolutions or orders.

The Standing Committee has an oversight role over local regions, provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government and may repeal regulations or orders made by these lower bodies that are found to contravene the Constitution, the laws, or administrative rules and regulations.

When the National People’s Congress is not in session the Standing Committee confirms appointments of officials including ministers of the various ministries or commissions, the auditor general, and the Secretary General of the State Council and Chairman of the Central Military Commission, of candidates for positions on the commission, and may appoint or remove a vice-president, a Supreme People’s Court justice, a member of its Judicial Committee, or the President of the Military Court.

The Standing Committee is able to appoint or remove the Deputy Procurators General or procurators of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, members of its Procuratorial Committee, or the Chief Procurator of the Military Procuratorate, as well as the approval of the appointment or removal of chief procurators of the people’s procuratorates of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government.

The Standing Committee is also able to make decisions on the ratification or abrogation of international treaties and other important documents signed with foreign states.

The Standing committee also has authority over the appointment or recall over ambassadors, and the institution of titles and the granting of state medals and titles of honor or the granting of special pardons.

The standing committee is also able to make decisions regarding war and peace when the NPC is not in session, including declarations of war and orders for full or partial mobilization. The Standing Committee is also authorized to declare a state of emergency either nationwide or in various regions.

In addition, the Standing Committee in the National People’s Congress will serve to facilitate each session of the National People’s Congress. The first session of each National People’s Congress shall be convened by the Standing Committee of the previous National People’s Congress within two months of the election of deputies to the current National People’s Congress. A month before the convening of a session of the National People’s Congress, its Standing Committee shall notify the deputies of the date of the session and of the main items on the proposed agenda. After deputies to the National People’s Congress have been elected, their credentials shall be examined by the Credentials Committee of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress.

Based on the reports submitted by the Credentials Committee, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress shall affirm the qualifications of deputies or invalidate the election of individual deputies, and shall publish the list of affirmed deputies prior to the first session of each National People’s Congress. Before each session of the National People’s Congress, a preparatory meeting shall be held and shall be presided over by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress.

Published by Edward E. Lehman on May 15th, 2018 tagged China News | Comment now »